This study discusses the relationship between ṣūfī and local population in the subcontinent. No doubt, that ṣūfīsm played an important role with their teachings and good morals, for bringing peace, harmony and Islamic culture in society. The topic of ṣūfīsm lends itself to a comparative world approach because the ideas of ṣūfīsm were not limited to a particular region or nation. This was due to the vast territory incorporated into Islamic society. To determine the impact of ṣūfīsm, it is necessary to evaluate how ṣūfīsm was able to interact with other segments of society. It is necessary to delineate the structure that ṣūfī practice developed in each region, how that structure was conducive to the social framework, and what effects developed as the ṣūfīs disseminated the real Islamic culture among the general population. The article particularly sheds light on the role of Khānqāh organization for establishing peace, harmony, equality, and justice for a successful society and also delineates the distinctive features of Khānqāh in detail.
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3. al-Qur'ān, 62:2
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20. Dr. Alan A. Godlas,"A Commentary on 'What is Tasawwuf?'-An Anonymous Persian Poem," Sufi Illuminations, 1(1996) 63-80. See also, Godlas, A. (trans.) “Sufism.” From the Fatawa of Shavkh‘Abd al-Halim Mahmud. 12 August 2001
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27. ʿImāmBukhari, Al-Jāmiʿ Al-Sahīh, Book of Fasting,Chapter: The right of the body in observing As-Saum, Hadith 196
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31. Ibid, Book of Zuhd ,Hadith No. 4382
32. (see his conversations, Khair al-Majalis)
33. The Khānqāh was a spacious building, much like a royal palace, providing separate accommodation for every visitor and inmate. The jama'atkhanah was a large room where all disciples slept, prayed and studied sitting on the floor. The Chishti saints built jama'atkhanas; the Suhrawardis constructed Khānqāhs. Common people, unable to appreciate the distinction, used the word Khānqāh even for the Chishtijama'atkhanahs, and now the term is used for all centers of spiritual activity without distinction. The zawiyahs were smaller places where mystics lived and prayed but, unlike the inmates of Khānqāhs and jama'atkhanahs, did not aim at establishing any vital contact with the world outside. In the 17th and the 18th centuries another type of Khānqāhs, came into existence. The primary aim of these Khānqāhs was to provide place for men of one affiliation to devote their time to religious meditation. They were smaller than the zawiya. SeeKhaliq Ahmad Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, StudiaIslamica, No. 8 (1957), pp. 51-69
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35. 1372 SH, Vol.-I, p.256
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38. al-Qur'ān,24: 36-37
39. Shab-ul-Din Suharwardi, 'Awarif al-Ma'arif (Urdu translation, Lucknow, 1926), p. 126- 127
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47. Nizamad-dinAwliya, trans. Lawrence, p.294.
49. ʿImāmBukhari, Al-Jāmiʿ Al-Sahīh, Book:Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat),Chapter: Zakat should be taken from the rich and given to the poor, Hadith No.1496
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55. Nizami, “Aspects of Khānqāh Life,” p.52.
56. Jamal Qiwam, Qiwam al-Aqaid, as reproduced in Qandi Farsi, May1994, Chapter VI, p.73.
57. Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, pp. 51-69
58. Amir Khwurd, Siyar al-Auliya, p. 135
59. Amir HasanSijzi,Fuwa'id al-Fu'ad,Delhi, 1326, AH,p.77
60. Nizam ad-Din Awliya', Morals for the Heart, recorded by Amir HasanSijzi, trans.
61. Bruce B. Lawrence, Classics of Western Spirituality, 74 (New York: Paulist Press,
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65. Dr. Shahazad Qaiser, Culture & Spirituality: The Punjabi Sufi Poetry of Baba Faridud-Din Masud Ganj-i-Shakr, (Lahore: Suchet KitabGhar, 2017), p.4
66. Najibu'd-dinAbd al-Qadir SuhraWardi, Adad-ul-Muridin Awarif-ul-Marif, Part-I
67. Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, StudiaIslamica, No. 8 (1957), pp. 51-69
68. Dr. Syed Liaqath Peeran, The essence of Islam, Sufism and its impact on India, East-West Books, New Dehli, 1998, p.230
69. Manzur Ijaz Wichaar, “People’s history of the Punjab: Baba Farid – the province’s first poet,” http://www.wichaar.com/news/319/ARTICLE/11826/2009-01-30.html (accessed December 13, 2014).
70. Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, Some Aspect of Religion and Politics in India during the Thirteenth Century, Idrah-i-Adabiyat-Delli, Delhi, 1974, p.264
71. Dr. ShahazadQaiser, Culture & Spirituality: The Punjabi Sufi Poetry of Baba Faridud-Din Masud Ganj-i-Shakr, (Lahore: Suchet Kitab Ghar, 2017), see for details 39-49.
72. Nizami, Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India, Studia Islamica, No. 8 (1957), pp. 51-69