Sufism is one of the most favorite topics among the scholars studying the spread of Islam in subcontinent during medieval period. The Institution of Sufism was developed in this region during 12th and 13th centuries AD. Chishti and Suhrawardi orders emerged as the two leading orders during this period. Though both of them were striving to achieve the ultimate goal of spreading Islamin the region but had some difference in their traditions and practices. For instance, the Chishti Sufismostly liked to remain aloof from the ruling elite. They took the responsibility of feeding each and every visitor,adopted merit in spiritual succession and believed in the legitimacy ofSama. On the other hand, the Suhrawardi Sufis flourished in collaboration with the political authorities. They made hereditary appointments of their successors, sometimes through the ruler, and had a dislike for music. The current study focuses on Sufism as a concept and as a religious discourse, and teachings of Chishti and Suhrawardi Sufi Saints in India. It is an effort to compare thetraditions and varied approaches of the two orders. Moreover it intends to show that in spite of remaining indifferent in their orientations, their mutual relations were persistently cordial because both aimed at achieving the ultimate goal of serving Islam.
Humayun Abbas Shams And Abdul Quddus Suhaib, “Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi’s Contribution To Islamic Thought”, Pakistan Journal Of Islamic Research, Vol.10 (2012), 35-50.
Anjum, "Sufism in history and its relationship with power", 23, 26, 35.
Anjum, "Sufism in history and its relationship with power." , 225.
Imam Abul Qasim Abdul Qarim Qashari, Rasala-e-Qashariya, trans., Dr. Pir Muhammad Hussain ( Islamabad: Adara Tahkekat-e- Islami,1988), 121.
B.A. Dar, Sufi Before al Hallaj in A History of Muslim Philosophy, ed. M.M. Sharif, Vol. 1 ( Delhi: Adam publishers, 2001 rpt., first published 1961), 336.
Muhammad Saeed, Tareekh-e- Suhrawardya (Karachi: Gilani Printers, 2001), 11-12.
Anjum. "Sufism in history and its relationship with power", 246.
Anjum. "Sufism in history and its relationship with power", 247.
Michel Winter, Society and Religion in Early Ottoman Egypt: Studies in the Writings of Abd-al-Wahhab al –Sharani (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction books, 1982), 90.
Marshal G.S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, Vol.2, “The Expansion of Islam in the Middle Periods” (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1974), 210-22.
Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimension of Islam (Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2003), 345.
Anjum. "Sufism in history and its relationship with power", 228, 247.
Chisht was a small town near Heart, Khurasan. Presently this area is situated in Afghanistan.
Laxmi Dhaul, The Sufi Shrines of Ajmer (New Delhi: Rupa and Co., 2004), 103.
Shiekh Abdur Rehman Chishti, Mirat ul Asrar, Trans. Wahid Bakhsh Sayal, (Lahore: Bazme Itahade Muslamin, 412 Hijri),539.
Maulana Hamid Ali Khan, Urdu Jamme Encyclopedia (Lahore: Shiekh Ghulam Ali & Sons, 1987), 804.
Khan, Urdu Jamme Encyclopedia, 1043.
Khaliq Ahmed Nizami, Some Aspects of the Religion and Politics in India during the Thirteenth Century (Aligarh: Department of History, Muslim University,1961), 175.
Shuja Alhaq, A Forgotten Vision (Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1996), 334.
Hafiz Muhammad Saad Ullah, Sufia aur Husn-e- Ikhlaq (Lahore: Maqtaba Anwar Madina,1997), 76.
Nizami, Some Aspects of the Religion and Politics in India during the Thirteenth Century, 262.
Saiyyid Muhammad Mubarak Alawi Kirmani alias Amir Khurd, Siyar-ul-
Auliya, (compiled in 1351-82 A.D.), ed. Chiranji Lai, Muhibb-i Hind Press,
Delhi, 1302 A.H./1885 A.D.), 196.
Hugh Tinker, South Asia: A Short History (London: Pall Mall Press, 1966), 85.
Alhaq, A Forgotten Vision, 357.
Qamar-ul-Huda, Striving For Divine Union, Spiritual exercises for Suhrawardi Sufis (London: Routledge Curzon, 2003), 144.
Khaliq Ahmad Nizami, Sulatin-e- Delhi k Mazhabi Rujhanat (Lahore: Sherkat Printing Press, 1990), 24-25.
Nizami, Sulatin-e- Delhi k Mazhabi Rujhanati, 25.
Tanvir Anjum, “Sons of Bread and Sons of Soul: Lineal and Spiritual Descendants of Baba Farid and the Issue of Succession”, Sufism in Punjab: Mystics, Literature and Shrines, ed. Surrinder Singh & Ishwar Dayal Gaur (Delhi: AAkar Books, 2009), 64.
Madnavi, Gulzar-i- Abrar, 42.
Amir Khurd, Siyar-ul-Auliya, 191.
Tanvir Anjum, Chisti Sufis in the Sultanate of Delhi 1190- 1400, From Restrained indifference to Calculated Defiance (Karachi: Oxford University press, 2011),345.
Syed Moin Haq, “The Suhrawardis”, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, vol. XXIII:II(April 1975), 78, 87.
Shiekh Muhammad Ikram, Aab e Kosar, (Lahore: Idara Saqafat Islamia, 1984), 262.
Ibn Battuta, ‘ Ajai’b al- Asfar (Safarnamah -I- Ibn Battutah), Urdu trans. And Notes Khan Bahadur Mawlavi Muhammad Husayn (Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, 1983), pp.152-153.
Carl W. Ernst and Bruce B. Lawrence, Sufi Martyars of Love (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), 4-5.
Muneera Haeri, The Chishti A Living Light, 2nd ed.(Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2001), 76-77.
Amir Khurd, Siyar-ul-Auliya, 294-296.
Mandavi, Gulzar-i- Abrar. See also Fazl Ahmad Juri, Adhkar-i- Abrar, (Lahore: Islamic Book Foundation, 1395 AH), 88, and Abd al- Rahman Chishti, Mirat al- Asrar,(comp. between 1045-65 AH circa), vol. II,Urdu trans. Captain Wahid Bakhsh Siyal,(Lahore: Sufi Foundation, 1982), 340.
Amir Khurd, Siyar-ul-Auliya, 175.
Nizami, Sulatane Delhi k Mazhabi Rujhanat, 121.
Muhammad Salim, “Shaykh Bahaud din Zakariya of Multan”, Journal of the Pakistan Histrical Society, vol. XVII:I (January 1969), 9.
Alhaq, A Forgotten Vision, 360.
Huda, Striving For Divine Union, 127.
Anjum, Chisti Sufis in the Sultanate of Delhi 1190- 1400, 251.
Shaykh Hamid ibn Hamidibn Fazl Allah Jamali, Siyar -al- Arifin (comp. between 1531-35 AD), (Delhi: Rizvi Press, 1311 AH/ 1893 AD), 19.
For details see Rajkumar Harrdev,Nizami Bansari,Urdu trans. Khawajah Hassan Nizami, abridged by Muhamud al- Rahman (Islamabad: Dost Publications, 2000),77-83.
J.S. Grewal, “The Sufi Beliefs and Attitudes in India”, ed. Asghar Ali Engineer, Sufism and Inter-Religious Understanding (India: Hope,nd), 19.
Rachana Rao Umashankar, “Defending Sufism, Defending Islam: Asserting Islamic Identity in India” (Ph.D. diss., University of North Carolina, 2012), 70.
. The Encyclopedia of Islam, new ed., vol. VIII, art. Sama , part I, In Music and Mysticism by J. During , pp.1018- 19.
Hazrat Qutb-ud- Din Bakhtiar Kakiand Hazrat Alauddin Ali Ahmad Sabir are said to be died during Sama. Saiyyid Muhammad bin Mubarak, Siar-ul- Aulia, trans. Ghulam Ahmad Biryan (Lahore: Mustaq Book Comer, n.d), 115. See also Allah Dhiyya bin Shiekh Bdul Rahim, Siar-ul- Aqtab, trans., Prof. Muhammad Muinuddin Dardai (Karachi: Nafees Academy, 1979), 199
M. Mahmood Ali Qutbi, Fragrance of Sufism, 82, see also, P. M. Currie, The Shrine and Cult of Muin al Din Chishti of Ajmeer, 63.
Tamimi, Junubi Asia main Musslim Mosiqi, 144.
Schimal, Mystical Dimension of Islam, 30.
Amir Hassan Sajzi, Fawaid ul Fawad,trans., Khawaja Hassan Nizami (Lahore: Akbar Book Sellers, 2006), 309.
Shiekh Badr al Din Ishaq, Asrar ul Aulia, trans., Ghulam Ahmad Biryan (Lahore: Zaviya foundation, 2007), 24.
Shaykh Abdal Haq (Muhaddith Dehlavi), Akhbar al – Akhyar fi Asrar al- Abrar (Reports of the righteous on the secrets of the pious; comp. in 1590) (Deoband: Kutubkhanah- i- Rahimiyyah, n.d), 88.
Muhammad Bilal Khan Bhatti, Sama in the Discourse of South Asian Sufism, M.Phil. thesis,Department of History &Pakistan Studies, Lahore, 2016, 31.
Shiekh Hamid bin Fazal Allah Jamali, Sirul Arifeen, trans., Mohammad Ayub Qadiri (Lahore: Urdu Science board, 1989), 173.
Hazrat Nizamud Din Auliya, Fawaed-ul-Fawad, trans, .Khawaja Hasan Nizami Sani (Delhi: Urdu Academy, 1992), 298.
P. M. Currie, The Shrine and Cult of Muin al-Din Chisti of Ajmeer (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989), 62.
Mohammad Mahmood Ali Qutbi, Fragrance of Sufism (Karachi: Royal Book Company, 1993), 84-85.
S. M. Ikram, Ab-e-Kosar, 294.
Erik S. Ohlander, Sufism in an Age of Transition: 'Umar al-Suhrawardi and the Rise of the Islamic Mystical Brotherhoods (Leiden: Brill, 2008), 123.
Anjum, Chisti Sufis in the Sultanate of Delhi, 1190- 1400, 119.
Saiyyid Sabah al Din Abdul Rehman, Bazm-e-Sufia (Delhi: Hind Daraul Musanefeen Shibli Academy, 2011), 117, 123.
Ikram, Ab-e-Kosar, 298.
Saiyyid Attar Abbas Rizvi, A History of Sufism in India, Vol.1(New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1978), 216-217.