English: (1) EARLY PATTERNS OF CHANGE IN MUSLIM SOCIETIES – A REWIEW
Modernity swept across Muslim societies as a byproduct of Western colonialism. However, before the formal colonization of the Muslim world, the internal gluttony of Muslim societies and hollowness of state administrative structures forced the then Muslim rulers to introduce modern reforms in their states. The Ottoman Empire pioneered this move with the introduction of modern reform programs of nizam-e-jedid (1789-1801) and Tanzimat (1839-1874) by Selim III and Mehmut II respectively. These programs were primarily aimed at reordering and updating administrative and military structures. Muhammad Ali of Egypt tried to modernize the economic system of Egypt under the banner of Tanzimat. Western Educational institutes established by French produced in Syria and Lebanon a class of intellectuals who took the lead in bringing about a transformation in the Arab World. The reformative ideas of Khayr ad Din Pasha of Tunisia in terms of strengthening government and state brought change in North Africa. In the Sub-Continent, Sayyed Ahmad Khan and his companions took the lead in efforts to integrate Western and Islamic thought. All of these reformative endeavors were inspired by European progress in all walks of life and were aimed at modernizing administration, imparting modern training to military corps and setting up modern communication infrastructure and educational institutes. The impact of these early reforms on the masses was not significant but it laid down the foundation for later modern ideologies which initiated cultural and social transformations.
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